This guide is based on Mac commands. Windows syntax is slightly different and covered in-depth here.
The command line (or Terminal) is an alien world for most designers, it goes against everything we know, create and love – Graphical User Interfaces [GUIs]. But that’s all it is, a pure version of the operating system without the restrictions imposed by UI design.
You will have noticed, either on your own or peeking at a developers screen, that with most new web software or development languages (anything node based in particular) that it’s a necessity. It may look scary, but it’s really nothing to fear and can be a very powerful tool and timesaver if you know a little bit about how it works.
The reason a lot of new web technologies use the command line is that it’s much easier for developers to write for than creating GUI applications (and getting us involved to design them!) Due to this there has been a boom in very clever and useful programs / technologies that you will likely want to add to your arsenal.
First things first
The command line is very simple but also very powerful. It’s important that you understand that anything you do in the command line is irreversible. There’s no ⌘ + Z available, once it’s done, it’s done. So tread with a little bit of caution, but it’s unlikely you’ll do something you regret (if you know what you’re doing).
The second thing is that (as I’ve mentioned) the command line is not a GUI. Don’t expect to see any nice icons or drag and drop functionality, it’s just text commands. There isn’t even mouse support, everything is done through the keyboard. It’s the ultimate Minimal Viable Product and doesn’t need to be anything more.
Let’s get started
When you open the terminal ( Applications → Utilities → Terminal ) you’ll see a short line that looks something like this:
My computer shows:
The terminal is saying “I am this computer, I am in this folder, you are this person, what do you want me to do?” with a blinking cursor afterwards. This is the prompt. You write commands after the $ symbol that tell the computer to do things (my examples after this start from the $ – Remember, you do not need to type the $ in your commands. Write after it.)
Where am I?
The first command that you should know is pwd this stands for Print Working Directory. A directory is another name for a folder. It’s exactly the same as using Finder to look through files, each window and level you navigate through in Finder is a directory.
In the terminal type pwd
This will will tell you where you are, initially you should be in your Home directory (the equivalent of clicking Go → Home in Finder)
You will use this command very frequently to check if you’re in the correct directory when moving around in the command line (remember there’s no undo available so it’s best to check to make sure where you are from time to time)
Now you know where you are you need to be able to move back and forth between directories. To do this use a simple command called cd this stands for Change Directory and where you want to go.
In terminal type:
Use the pwd command to see if that worked:
Your prompt will also have updated to include where you are and should look something like this:
Which is easier to check than running pwd but if you’re not sure it’s best to play it safe and check where you are.
To move up a level, similar to HTML file paths you type:
That will take us back to the home directory (as we’re only one level deep):
A shortcut to go back home is to type the ~ (tilde) character after cd that acts as home and will get you out of deep directories with ease (rather than typing ../../../../ to go back 4 levels)
However the easiest way to move around the terminal isn’t to type full paths out, for example if you want to access a deep folder you’d have to type something like this:
Thats a little long winded to type out multiple times. It’s unlikely that you will be navigating your entire project using just the command line, you’ll be using the Finder for general bits and the CL for running programs (like git). To fast track to your project, navigate to it in Finder and type cd in the Terminal. Then drag the folder from Finder into the terminal and it will auto complete the path for you. Magic.
Making and deleting directories
To make a directory move to where you want the new folder and type:
mkdir is short for Make Directory. This command will make a folder called my_awesome_project. You can make multiple folders by passing a path:
You can similarly remove a directory by using rmdir. Let’s say we don’t want the stylesheets folder anymore. We cd into the file and use rmdir to delete it.
Remember, you cannot undo this so make sure you’re not deleting anything important by checking whats inside the folder first.
To find out what is in your directories you can run ls which lists the contents of the current directory:
We’re sure we don’t want our stylesheets for this project, let’s continue and remove the directory:
You can also create files in the terminal by using the touch command. Let’s create an index.html file, simply type:
We can run ls to make sure it’s there:
Opening files in the terminal
You may want to open a file you’re browsing easily, you can do that by simply asking the terminal to open the file:
This will open the index.html file in it’s default application (usually a web browser). To open the file in a different application you can type:
And the file will open in Atom (my current text editor of choice)
History and search
Searching for a previous command by scrolling through the previous output can be a little daunting with all the system jargon the terminal can spit out. Luckily there are a few shortcuts:
history will pull a list of recent executed commands (without the output). This is really useful to check if you’ve already done something or not but can be a little overkill.
Pressing ctrl + R opens a search function called reverse-i-search your prompt will change to:
if you start typing, the most recent command that equals your query will be displayed and you can re-use the command by just pressing enter rather than typing it all out again. To exit this function press esc.
An even quicker method of searching recent commands is simply pressing the ↑ (up) key on your num-pad to browse commands in chronological order.
Find out more
The command line can do a lot more than the above but as the title suggests, you probably won’t use many of the other commands on a day-to-day basis. If you’d like to find out more about the command line and the myriad of other commands, I highly suggest reading through the Command Line Crash Course by Zed A Shaw.